Glossary

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GIS
Geographic Information System: a system of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data.
Gonads
male and female reproductive organs
Gonopore
opening through which eggs or sperm are released, especially in invertebrates
Gravid
pregnant; bearing eggs or young
Grazers
animals that eat growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton as their principle source of energy
Gregarious
tend to live in groups; social
Habitat
environment in which a plant or animal lives; its home
Halophytes
plants that can grow in soils with a high salt content
Haustoria
slender portion of leaf or stem modified for twinning; a tendril
Hectocotylus
one of arms of most male cephalopods such as an octopus that is modified to transfer spermatophores from a male to a reproductive female
Hemoglobin
iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that conveys oxygen to tissues
Herbivore
animal adapted to subsist solely or mainly on plant food
Home range
area in which an animal lives
Homoeothermic
warm-blooded; body temperature controlled internally and maintained at a constant level; endothermic
Hydra
small jelly animals with a polyp form that are found only in fresh water; colonies are shaped like feathers or very small trees
Hydrodynamics
branch of physics that studies fluids in motion and the forces that affect motion
Hydroid
colony of polyps growing on a common stalk; found only in salt water; form colonies shaped like feathers or very small areas
Hydromedusae
small jellies usually less than 25mm (1 in)
Hydrophone
microphone submerged in water
Hydrozoan
class of Phylum Cnideria that includes hydroids, hydra, and the Portuguese man-of-war
Ichthyologists
zoologists who study fishes
Ichthyoplankton
planktonic fish larvae and suspended fish eggs
Incurrent
pertaining to a current that flows inward
Indicator species
a species whose presence, absence, or relative well-being in a given environment is indicative of the health of its ecosystem as a whole
Indigenous
native to a particular region or environment
Indirect development
having a larval stage of development
Inert
unable to move or act
Infanticide
killing of young
Inorganic
being or composed of matter that is not plant or animal
Insectivore
animal that primarily eats insects
Intertidal
the zone between high and low tides, exposed to and flooded periodically by tides.
Invertebrate
animals with no dorsal column of vertebrae; without a backbone
Iridescent
having or displaying rainbow-like colors
Iridocyte
cells or tissue containing reflective material, e.g., reflective cells on fishes' scales
Isopod
any member of the Order Isopoda of aquatic crustaceans; has six pairs of legs and a flat oval body
Keeled
peak running lengthwise along the centerline, resembling the keel of a boat
Kelp
dense temperate algae; any of the large brown seaweeds
Keratin
fibrous protein in skin, nails, hair, baleen of whales; contains large amounts of cystine
Krill
shrimp-like crustacean
Lampara net
a surrounding net with the center bagging part in the form of a spoon and two lateral wings, making it possible to retain the shool of fish when the two wings are hauled up at the same time.
Lappet
lobes around margin of the bell of most true jellies
Larva
immature stage of an animal that must metamorphose before assuming adult form and characteristics
Larvae
immature stage of an animal that must metamorphose before assuming adult form and characteristics
Lateral line
sensory canal system running along the flanks (sides) of most fishes and some amphibians that detects water movement, disturbances and vibrations
Leach
to remove unwanted parts of a substance by a percolating or filtering liquid
Littoral
intertidal zone along or on the coastline or shore
Locomotion
act of moving; the ability to move from place to place
Macrophyte
any large living marine plant such as algae, sea grasses, mangroves
Madroporite
sieve-like button-shaped process on top surface of Echinoderms that serves as the external opening of the water vascular system
Mammal
any member of the Class Mammalia; warm-blooded, have hair, have live births, nurse their young, breath air, have a 3 part inner ear structure; e.g., whales, bears, humans